Brief Overview of the Indian Parliamentary System
India has a parliamentary form of government. The nation’s primary legislative body is
the Union Parliament. The Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha are the two houses that
make up the legislature. Members of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) are chosen
directly by the electorate. The legislative bodies of the states choose the members of
the Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The cabinet system, responsible government, and
prime minister model are other names for the Parliamentary system.
Parliament meets three times a year to transact business by custom (rather than as
required under the Constitution). The Budget Session, Monsoon Session, and Winter
Session are among the three sessions of the Indian Parliament.
Let’s take a quick look at the parliament of India and the function it performs, which is a
critical part of the polity and government section of the UPSC syllabus.
Functions of Parliament
Chapter II of Part V of the Indian Constitution describes the duties of Parliament. There
are various areas in which the duties of Parliament might be divided. Let’s go into more
depth about each of them.
● Any topic that is on the Union List or the Concurrent List is subject to legislative
action by the Parliament.
● State legislatures and Parliament both have authority over the Concurrent List.
● The Parliament may approve legislation on items on the State List if a state
declares an emergency or is subject to President’s Rule (Article 356).
● According to Article 249, the Rajya Sabha must pass a resolution with a 2/3
majority of its members present and voting indicating that passing legislation on
any item on the State List is important for the national interest before the
Parliament can make laws on those topics.
● In accordance with Article 253, it may pass legislation pertaining to items on the
State List if doing so is required to carry out international agreements or accords
with other nations.
● According to Article 252, if the legislatures of two or more states adopt a
resolution stating that parliamentary action on any matter on the State List is
desirable, the Parliament may pass laws for those states.
● A vote of no confidence in the Parliament has the authority to overthrow the
Cabinet (executive). It has the power to reject any bill or the Cabinet’s proposed
budget. When a motion of no confidence is approved, the government is
● Members of Parliament (MPs) have the right to inquire into the actions and
inactions of ministers. Parliament has the ability to reveal any errors made by the
● Adjournment Motion: An adjournment motion, which is exclusively permitted in
the Lok Sabha, is primarily used to bring the Parliament’s attention to any current
matter of significant public significance. Since it affects daily activities, it is
acknowledged in Parliament as a unique tool.
● A Ministerial Assurances Committee is established by the Parliament to look into
whether ministers have kept their promises to the body.
● Parliament has the final say when it comes to financial matters. Without the
consent of the legislature, the Executive is not permitted to spend any money.
● The Cabinet draughts the Union Budget, which is then submitted to Parliament
for approval. Any tax-imposition plans must also receive approval from
● Two permanent committees in the Parliament monitor how the government uses
the funds it gets from the legislature (the Public Accounts Committee and the
● With the help of Parliament, the President and Vice President are selected.
● The electoral college, which chooses the President, is composed of
representatives from both Houses.
● Members of the House who violate their privileges may be subject to sanctions
from the Parliament.
● When one of the MPs’ privileges is violated, a breach of privilege occurs.
● The majority of the time, courts do not have the authority to evaluate how
Parliament punishes its members.
● The President, Vice President, justices of the Supreme Court and High Court, the
Auditor-General, and others may also be impeached by Parliament.
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